HISTORY OF THE ORDER

 

Introduction   |   Summary   |   Detailed   |   Timeline   |   Lists   |   Glossary


Glossary of names, words and expressions pertinent to Templary and the Order's history.

The flags represent the country, or allegiance, of the person described to avoid confusion, particularly when kings of different countries had the same name and suffix.

Click on an index letter to jump to that alphabetical section. You can return quickly to this index by clicking on any of the red crosses (+) at the end of a definition.

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
 

A
Acre (Port of)
Historic Site   Site of Battle(s)
  Captured in 1191 during the Third Crusade by Richard I (Lionheart), Acre became the headquarters of the Knights Templar in the Holy Land.
Acre was finally lost to the Mamluks in 1291, the last Christian outpost in the Holy Lands.

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Ad Proviendan
Papal Bull
  Papal Bull issued by Pope Clement V in 1312, handing over all Templar assets to the Hospitallers.
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Almoner
Templar term or phrase
  One of the nine senior office holders of the Grand Priory Chapter.
This office holder is responsible for the programme of charitable donations and humanitarian aid within the Grand Priory and for the welfare of its members.

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André de Montbard
Knight Templar
  Fifth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1154-1156).
The Montbard family came from Hochadel in Burgundy, and André was an uncle of St Bernard of Clairvaux. He entered the Order in 1129 and went to Palestine, where he quickly rose to the rank of seneschal, deputy and second-in-command to the Grand Master. After the Siege of Ascalon in 1153, André was elected Grand Master to replace Bernard de Tremelay, who had been killed during an assault on the city on August 16.

b. c.1103   d. January 17, 1156 in Jerusalem.
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Annual General Assembly
Templar term or phrase
  The main assembly of the Grand Priory where all Members are invited to consider and vote on business matters. This usually includes items such as the election of office holders, review of financial reports and the annual reports of Preceptories.

See also
General Assembly.

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Armand de Périgord
Knight Templar
  Sixteenth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1232-1244/6?).
Also known as Hermann de Pierre-Grosse, Armand was a descendant of the Counts of Périgord.
He was the Templar Master of the Province of Apulia and Sicily from 1205, and in 1232 elected as Grand Master of the Order.
In 1239, he was party to the treaty made between the Sultan of Damascus, the Hospitallers and the Teutonic Knights. This was an allegiance to help repel the Khwarezmians from Asia Minor. At the ensuing Battle of La Forbie, the Christian-Muslim coalition was massacred, although a few Templar and Hospitaller survivors managed to reach Ascalon.
Armand is assumed to have been killed in battle, although he may have been captured. His fate is not actually known.

b. 1178   d. October, 1244(?).
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Arnaud de Torroge
Knight Templar
  Ninth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1181-1184).
Upon his election as Grand Master, he set out with Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem and Roger de Moulins (Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller) to gather European support for the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
b. ?   d. September 30, 1184 in Verona.

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Arsuf, Battle of
Historic Site   Site of Battle(s)
  A battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I (Lionheart) defeated Saladin at Arsuf, following Richard's earlier victory at Acre. The Crusaders took pride in this their first victory since the disastrous Battle of Hattin in 1187.
Date: September 7, 1191.
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Ascalon, Battle of
Historic Site   Site of Battle(s)
  The Siege and Battle of Ascalon took place on August 22, 1153, resulting in the capture of that Egyptian fortress by the Crusaders. The Templar Grand Master, Bernard de Tremelay, was killed in the battle.
An earlier battle in 1099 is considered as the last action of the First Crusade when Crusaders forced the final retreat of the Fatimids.

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Audita tremendi
Papal Bull
  Papal Bull issued by Gregory VIII in October 1187, calling for the Third Crusade.
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B
Baibars
  Full name, al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari, he was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria.
A commander of the Mamluks, he fought under Sutan Qutuz at the
Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, against the Mongols. After the battle, he killed Qutuz in revenge for killing his best friend some years earlier, and proclaimed himself Sultan.
b. 1223   d. July 1, 1277 in Syria.

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Baldwin II
Monarch or of a royal family   of France
  French King of Jerusalem (1118-1131) who provided quarters to the first Templars in part of his palace (the site of al-Aqsa Mosque) thought to be remains of Solomon’s Temple.
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Balian of Ibelin
Crusader knight
  Youngest son of Barisan of Ibelin, presumed to be an Italian knight.
Balian led the defence of the Siege of Jerusalem in 1187, finally surrendering the city to Saladin on October 2.
A highly-fictionalised account of Balian's life and exploits in the crusades is depicted in the film, Kingdom of Heaven.
b. c.1140   d. 1193 in Syria.

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Bannockburn, Battle of
Site of Battle(s)
  Famous battle that took place in Scotland between June 23 and 24, 1314; the decisive battle in the First War of Scottish Independence. Robert the Bruce is alleged to have been assisted in the battle by exiled Templars living in Scotland, many of whom were reputed to have escaped there following the 1307 suppression. Robert had been excommunicated by the Pope, so did not carry out the infamous arrest order against the Templars.
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beaucéant
Templar term or phrase
  The flag of the Knights Templar - click [here] for a pop-up showing images of the flag.

Also, the name of the published journal of the Grand Priory - click on the Resources menu to download a copy.
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Bernard de (of) Clairvaux, St.
Clergy or from a monastic order
  Patron of the Order of the Knights Templar and to whom the Templecombe Preceptory is dedicated.
Bernard was a French Cistertian Abbot who wrote De Laude Novae Militae which placed the Templars in high regard with the church authorities and advocated the Second Crusade.
b. c.1090   d. August 21, 1153 in Clairvaux.

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Bertrand de Blanchefort
Knight Templar
  Sixth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1156-1169).
He was the younger son of Godfrey of Blanchefort, a knight of Aquitaine. He succeeded André de Montbard, and introduced reforms to the Rule of the Order. He obtained from the Pope the right to use the title "Master by the Grace of God", and to carry the baton known as the Abacus.
b. c.1109   d. January 2, 1169.
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Bernard de Tremelay
Knight Templar
  Fourth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1153).
Bernard is noted for rebuilding the ruined city of Gaza, given to him by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem.
He died in the assault on the fort at Ascalon, then controlled by the Egyptians, along with around 40 other Templar Knights.
b. ?   d. August 16, 1153 at Ascalon.
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Bull   see Papal Bull
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C
Celestine II
Pope or Papal Official
  Born Guido di Castello, he was Pope from 1143 to 1144. Elected in 1143, he governed the Church for only five months and thirteen days. He issued his Papal Bull, Milites Templi, allowing the Templars to collect their own funds.
b. ?   d. March 8, 1144.

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Chancellor
Templar term or phrase
  One of the nine senior office holders of the Grand Priory Chapter.
The Chancellor is the organiser of national events, schedule of projects and their co-ordination with the Preceptories in the Grand Priory.
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Chaplain
Templar term or phrase
  A class of membership within the Order for ministers of religion.

See also Knight, Dame and Chaplain General.

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Chaplain General
Templar term or phrase
  One of the nine senior office holders of the Grand Priory Chapter.
The Chaplain General
is responsible for the conduct of religious services within the Grand Priory, and, assisted by the Chaplains, for the spiritual care of members.
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Chapter Clerk
Templar term or phrase
  One of the nine senior office holders of the Grand Priory Chapter.
The Clerk is responsible for the Secretariat of the Grand Priory Chapter. The Clerk's role also includes correspondence, literature, non-membership enquiries and official minutes of the Order.

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Chinon, Parchment of
Papal Bull
 
  Parchment document stored in the Vatican Secret Archives under reference number Archivum Arcis Armarium D 218.
Discovered by accident in 2001, the document absolves some of the senior Templar officers of the torture-induced confessions of heresy, instigated by Philip IV. In the document, Clement V explicitly declares that the trials did not prove the charge of heresy.

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Clement III
Pope or Papal Official
  Born Paulino Scolari, he was elected Pope on December 19, 1187 and reigned until his death.
Clement III took over the call for the Third Crusade, following his predecessor's very short reign. Gregory VIII had called for the crusade, but died less than two months later.
Clement III was instrumental in inciting Henry II of England and Philip II of France to undertake the campaign.
b. ? in Rome   d. March 27, 1191 in Rome.

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Clement V
Pope or Papal Official
  Pope Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth, was Pope from 1305 to his death. He is notorious in history for suppressing the Templars at Philip IV's insistence, his friend who had arranged for his papacy by usurping the previous Pope.
Clement reluctantly issued a Bull for all Templars to be arrested, and allowed Philip to railroad the subsequent trials by Inquisition, torture and forced confessions. For this failure to stand up for the right, Clement is known by many historians as the 'Puppet Pope'.
Clement died shortly after the final persecution of the Templars - see Molay's Curse.
b. 1264   d. April 20, 1314.

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Clerk
Templar term or phrase
  see Chapter Clerk
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commandry
Templar term or phrase
  The smallest division of the European landed estate or manor under the control of a commendator, or commander, of an order of knights. The word is also applied to the emoluments granted to a commander in a military order of knights.

In the Order of Knights Templar an alternative name, Preceptory, is often used.

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Council of Troyes   A council convened by Pope Honorius II in 1128 (possibly 1129) to recognise and confirm the Order of the Knights Templar.
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Council of Vienne   The Council of Vienne was the Fifteenth Ecumenical Council that met between 1311 and 1312 in Vienne. Its principal act was to withdraw papal support for the Knights Templar on the instigation of the King of France, Philip IV.
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cross pattée
Templar term or phrase
  The original name for a Templar cross, worn on the left on Templar mantles. A cross whose arms are narrower at the centre, and broader at the perimeter with non-indented ends. The name comes from the fact that the shape of each arm of the cross was thought to resemble a paw (French: patte).
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Crusade, 1st
 
  The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims, and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim rule.
Lasted 1096 - 1099.

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Crusade, 2nd   The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year. Edessa was the first of the Crusader states to have been founded during the First Crusade, and was the first to fall. The Second Crusade preached by Bernard of Clairvaux, and was announced by Pope Eugene III. It was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other important European nobles.
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Crusade, 3rd   The Third Crusade, also known as the King's Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
Spurred by religious zeal, Henry II of England and Philip II of France ended their conflict with each other to lead a new Crusade. The elderly Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa responded to the call to arms, and lead a massive army across Anatolia, but died before reaching the Holy Land.
Following Henry II's death in 1189, the cause was taken up by his son, Richard I of England (Lionheart).
Lasted 1189 - 1192.

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Crusade, 4th   The Fourth Crusade, originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt, instead, in 1204, invaded and conquered the Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Pope Innocent III had called for this Crusade in 1198 and was horrified that it had been taken over by the Venetians. He sharply denounced Boniface of Montferrat, commander of this so-called crusade for his reckless actions against Christian cities.
Lasted 1201 - 1204.

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Crusade, 5th   Called by Innocent III, the Fifth Crusade was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.
However, Innocent died before the crusade commenced, so the cause was continued by his successor, Honorius III.
Lasted 1217 - 1221.
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Crusade, 6th   The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to reconquer Jerusalem. It began only seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade.
Frederick II, led the crusade despite being excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX for breaking an earlier crusader vow during his coronation as emperor in 1220 by Gregory IX's predecessor, Pope Honorius III.
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Crusade, 7th   Led by Louis IX of France, the Seventh Crusade came about following events years earlier. In 1244 the Khwarezmians retook Jerusalem, after the end of a ten-year truce following the Sixth Crusade. However, most Europeans were used to seeing Jerusalem switch between Christian and Muslim control and were now getting quite jaded by the whole Crusade ethos. Most European countries were in a state of sorting internal issues (including England), leaving Louis IX as the only ruler declaring his intent to go East in 1245.
The crusade was a failure, and Louis returned to France in 1254 after running out of money.
Lasted 1248 - 1254.
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Crusade, 8th   Following his earlier failure in the Seventh Crusade, Louis IX became further disturbed by the Mamluks attacking the last remnants of the Crusader states. He called for a new crusade in 1267 and landed in Tunis in 1270 with the aim of making Tunis a staging post. He died from a stomach illness whilst there.
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Crusade, 9th   When Louis IX died, the Eighth Crusade was continued by his brother Charles of Anjou. However, following an agreement with the Sultan, Charles abandoned the attacks on Tunis in exchange for free trade with Tunis.
Edward I of England had now joined the crusade, and continued on to Acre, the last crusader outpost in Syria. His time there is often referred to as the Ninth Crusade.
However, when news arrived that Edward's father Henry III had died, a treaty was signed with Baibars, allowing Edward to return home to be crowned King of England in 1272.
Lasted 1271 - 1272.
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Crusade, Albigensian   Also known as the Cathar Crusade, this was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered apostasy.
By the completion of the campaign, the entire race of Cathars had been annihilated and led to the formal creation of the Inquisition, who became synonymous with torture-induced 'confessions'.
Lasted 1209 - 1229.

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Crusade, People's   The People's Crusade is part of the First Crusade and lasted roughly six months from April 1096 to October. It is also known as the Popular Crusade, Peasants' Crusade, or the Paupers' Crusade. Evangelised by Peter the Hermit (who pre-empted Urban II's call for a crusade), it was a badly equipped and disorganised crusade of, mostly, commoners including women and children.
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Crusades, The   A series of military campaigns in the Holy Lands following Pope Urban II's call to liberate Jerusalem in 1095. Although most academics list seven crusades, there were in fact many more, including ones not sanctioned by the Pope.
The last Crusade is generally acknowledged to be the Ninth and following the capture of Acre in 1291, the last Christian State had ceased to exist.
In this Glossary we have included the nine major campaigns, plus two additional campaigns that are relevant to Templar history.
Lasted 1095 - 1291.

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D
Dame
Templar term or phrase
  The female equivalent rank of Knight within the Order.
See
Knight for more information.
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Damietta, Siege of
Historic Site   Site of Battle(s)
  The Siege of Damietta occurred in 1218. The city, under the control of the Ayyubid Al-Kamil, was besieged by knights of the Fifth Crusade. The attacking force was repelled.
The city was later besieged by Louis IX in 1249, during the Seventh Crusade. Louis was successful, was was later forced to hand it back following his defeat in Egypt.
Because of its importance to the Crusaders, the Mamluk Sultan Baibars destroyed the city and rebuilt it with stronger fortifications a few kilometres from the river.

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De Laude Novae Militae
Rule, edict or writings
  Edict written by Bernard of Clairvaux in 1136 extolling the virtues of the Knights Templar as “a new type of order in the Holy Places.”
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E
Edward I
Monarch or of a royal family   of England
  Also known as 'Longshanks' as he is alleged to have had long flowing hair.
Continuing the Plantagenet line, Edward acceded to the throne in November 1272. Edward was away on the Ninth Crusade when he learned of the death of his father, Henry III. He signed a treaty with the
Baibars, so that he could return to England to be crowned.
Edward was also known as the 'Hammer of the Scots' due to his, some say, ruthless invasion and rule of the Scots. However, despite his autocratic image, he also founded the first Parliamentary Constitution of English Government, thus removing the previously partisan politics of the feudal system.
Following the failure of the Crusades, Edward was one of those who lay the blame at the feet of the Templars, despite his own involvement and lack of success. He used this argument to justify several violations of the London Temple.
b. June 17, 1238 at Westminster Palace   d. Died July 7, 1307 in Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland

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Edward II
Monarch or of a royal family   of England
  Son of Edward I, he reigned as a Plantagenet King from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. Like his father, he violated the Temple of the Templars in London prior to Pope Clement V issuing his infamous arrest order. Some historians claim that this was in revenge for the Templar's alleged support of Robert the Bruce's decisive victory at Bannockburn.
b. April 25, 1284   d. September 21(?), 1327 (suspected murdered)

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Eugenius III
Pope or Papal Official
  Also written as Eugene.
Born Bernardo dei Paganelli di Montemagno, he was a
friend and pupil of Bernard of Clairvaux. He was Pope from 1145 to 1153) and is noted for calling for the Second Crusade. He issued the Papal Bull, Militi Dei, giving new rights to the Templars. Eugenius granted the Order the red cross pattée to wear on their mantles.
b. ?   d. July 8, 1153.

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Everard des Barres
Knight Templar
  Third Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1149-1152), officially abdicated 1152.
As Preceptor of the Templars in France from 1143, he was one of the highest dignitaries of the Order when Robert de Craon died in 1147. He was chosen to succeed Robert, and as soon as he was elected, he accompanied Louis VII of France on the Second Crusade.
On returning to France, he abdicated his position and became a monk at Clairvaux.

b. ?   d. 1174.
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F
Fatimids
  Also written as Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn.
A Shi'a dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 910 to 1171. The term Fatimite is sometimes used to refer to the citizens of this caliphate.

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Freemasonry
 

A worldwide esoteric fraternity started in 1776 and basing many of its ceremonies and procedures around the legend of Solomon's Temple. Although Freemasonry has a 'Templar degree' it is a completely separate organisation.
The Knights Templar of England and Wales is not a Masonic or esoteric organisation.

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G
General Assembly
Templar term or phrase
  An assembly open to all Members of the Grand Priory to consider and vote on national business matters. Generally, these are matters separate from business discussed at regional Preceptory level.

See also
Annual General Assembly.

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Geoffrey de Charnay
Knight Templar
  Also recorded as Geoffroy.
Preceptor of Normandy, burned to death with Jacques de Molay as one of the final acts of the persecution of the Templars in the early 14th Century.
De Charney was initially sentenced to lifetime imprisonment with de Molay, but both were burned after they proclaimed their innocence, recanting torture-induced confessions.
De Charney's nephew was Geoffroi de Charny, whose widow first put the Shroud of Turin on display later in 1357.

b. ?   d. March 18, 1314.
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Geoffroy de St Omer
Knight Templar
  Also recorded as Gaufred, Godefroi or Godfrey de St Omer, Saint Omer, or Saint-Omer.
A Flemish knight, one of the founding members of the Knights Templar in 1118. He is said to have also come from the family of the Lords of Saint-Omer (in today's northern France): William I, Lord of Saint Omer, and his son Hugh by Melisende de Piquigny, participated in the First Crusade as vassals of Robert II of Flanders.
It has been said that Hughes de Payens (the first Grand-Master) and Geoffrey were so poor that between the two of them they had only one horse, and that this gave rise to one of the symbols of the Templars - two men on one horse.
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Gérard de Ridefort
Knight Templar
  The tenth Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1185 until his death in 1189.
The younger son of a Flemish Lord, Gérard joined the Second Crusade in 1146, but after the failure of the crusade, he remained in the Holy Land, in the service of Raymond III of Tripoli. In 1187, he led the ill-fated Templars at the Battle of Hattin, where Saladin massacred the survivors trying to cross the desert without water.
In 1189 Gérard led the Templars against Saladin in the Siege of Acre. This time he did not escape, and is believed to have been captured and beheaded by Saladin
.
b. ?   d. October 1, 1189.

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Gilbert Horal
Knight Templar
  Also written as Gilbert Eral
Twelfth Grand Master of the Knights Templar
(1194-1200).
I
n 1194, Pope Céléstin III awarded the Templars more privileges, but this was later marred by Gilbert's passion to promote peace between the Christians and Moslems.
During his leadership the quarrel between the Templars and Hospitallers increased. The arbitration of Pope Innocent III was in favour of the Hospitallers because the Pope could not forgive the Templars for making the agreements that they had with Malek-Adel, brother of Saladin.

b. ?   d. December 1200.

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Grand Priory Chapter
Templar term or phrase
  The Council is made up of the nine senior office holders of the Grand Priory:
Grand Prior, Sub Prior, Chaplain General, Seneschal, Chapter Clerk, Almoner, Treasurer, Chancellor and Marshal,
and the Preceptors.

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Grand Cross
Templar term or phrase
  A term to denote the highest grade in the Order. Sometimes the knights (and dames) are called "Knights Grand Cross" or "Dames Grand Cross", and use the suffix KGCTJ and DGCTJ respectively.
The actual insignia itself is also called The Grand Cross.

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Grand Master
Templar term or phrase
  The title of the highest ranking office holder of the Order.
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Grand Prior
Templar term or phrase
  The most senior of the nine office holders of the Grand Priory.
The Grand Prior presides at the Grand Priory Chapter and at the General Assemblies. The Grand Prior represents the Grand Priory at international meetings of the Order and has the authority to invest Knights and Dames and to induct Chaplains into the Order.
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Gregory VIII
Pope or Papal Official
  Born Albert de Mora, was one of the shortest reigning Pope's in history, from October 25, 1187 until his death in December.
His first act as Pope was to issue the Papal Bull, Audita tremendi, which called for the Third Crusade in response to the Battle of Hattin earlier that year.
He did not live to see the crusade, as he died of fever less than two months later.
b. c.1100 in Benevento, Italy   d. December 17, 1187 in Pisa.

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Gualdim Pais
Knight Templar  
of Portugal
  First Templar Master in Portugal, who founded Tomar Castle in 1160, and made it the seat of the Portuguese arm of the Order.
He fought alongside King Afonso I in the Crusades, and was ordered a Knight by him in the year of 1139, after the Battle of Ourique. He departed to Palestine shortly thereafter, and during five years fought there as a Knight Templar. He had a prominent role in the siege of the city of Gaza.
b. 1118   d.1195 in Tomar.
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Guillaume de Beaujeu
Knight Templar
  Also recorded as Willaim de Beaujeu.
Twentieth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1273-1291).
Guillaume
was mortally wounded during the Siege of Acre (1291) and was the last Grand Master of the Order to be killed during a Holy Land crusades.
b. 1233   d.1291 at Acre.

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Guillaume de Chartres
Knight Templar
  Fourteenth Grand Master of the Knights Templar
(1210-1218/9?).
Guillaume de Chartres (Guillielmus de Carnoto, Willemus de Carnoto) was a Prince of the Cistercian Principality of Seborga.
In 1210, he assisted at the coronation of Jean de Brienne as King of Jerusalem. In 1211, he arbitrated between Leo II of Armenia and the Templars, regarding the castle of Bagras. During his rule, the order flourished in Spain, achieving important victories against the Moors.
Guillaume died of fever after being wounded during the Siege of Damietta.

b. ?   d.
August 26, 1218 in Damietta.
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Guillaume de Sonnac
Knight Templar
  Also recorded as Guillielmus de Carnoto, Willemus de
Guillaume de Sonnac
Seventeenth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1247-1250).
Guillaume distinguished himself at the Siege of Damietta, and commanded the vanguard of the Christian army together with the Count of Artois.
He is accredited as the Master who had all the Order's archives codified before they were stored for posterity.

b. ?   d.
1250.
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H
Hattin, Battle of
Name or site of battle(s)
  The Battle of Hattin took place on Saturday, July 4, 1187, between the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the forces of the Ayyubid dynasty under Saladin. It was a decisive setback in the fortunes of the Crusader movement, enabling the Muslims to regain control of Jerusalem from the Christians.
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Henry IV
Monarch or of a royal family   of France
  French: Henri IV.
The first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty, Henri IV ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. He was responsible for restoring the Order of Lazarus 1606.
b. December 13, 1553   d. May 14, 1610 (murdered).

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Henry the Navigator
Monarch or of a royal family   of Portugal
  Infante Henrique, Duke of Viseu KG was an infante (prince) of the Portuguese House of Aviz and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire. He is known in English as Prince Henry the Navigator or the Seafarer.
On May 25, 1420, Henry gained appointment as the governor of the very rich Order of Christ, the Portuguese successor to the Knights Templar, which had its headquarters at Tomar Castle.
b. March 4, 1394 in Porto   d. November 13, 1460 in Sagres.
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Heraclius
Clergy or from a monastic order   of Jerusalem
  Also written as Eraclius
Archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
He urged Balian of Ibelin to lead the defence of Jerusalem during the Siege of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187.
He died of disease during the Third Crusade.

b. c.1129   d. 1191.

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Holy Sepulchre
Historic Site
  The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. The ground on which the church rests is venerated by most Christians as Golgotha, the Hill of Calvary, where the New Testament describes that Jesus was crucified. It also is said to contain the place where Jesus was reportedly buried (the sepulchre).
The church has been an important pilgrimage destination since the 4th century.
Today it serves as the headquarters of the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem and the Catholic Archpriest of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre.

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Honorius II
Pope or Papal Official
  Born Lamberto Scannabecchi (from 1117 Cardinal Lambert of Ostia), he was Pope from December 21, 1124 until his death.
He convened the Council of Troyes to officially recognise the Order of the Temple and the Latin Rule.
b. ?   d. February 13, 1130.

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Honorius III
Pope or Papal Official
  Born Cencio Savelli, he was Pope from 1216 to 1227. Like his famous predecessor Innocent III, he set his mind on the recovery of the Holy Land and called for the the Fifth Crusade.
He also continued his predecessors campaign in the south of France against the so-called Cathar heresies.
b. 1148 in Rome   d. March 18, 1227 in Rome.

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Hospitallers
  The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) is an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide care for poor and sick pilgrims to the Holy Land.
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Hughes de Payens
Knight Templar
  Also written as Payns.
First Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1119-1136), he was a French knight from the Champagne region.
It is likely that Hughes de Payens served in the army of Godfroi de Boullion during the First Crusade. Staying on in Jerusalem, he established the first Templar base in Jerusalem. As Grand Master, he led the Order for almost twenty years until his death, helping to establish the Order's foundations as an important and influential international military and financial institution.
b. c.1070   d. 1136 in Palestine.

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I
Industrial Templary
Templar term or phrase
  Industrial Templary was founded in 1972 on the Feast of St Joseph, patron saint of workers and of social justice, in the city of Birmingham in the industrial heartland of England. The first Industrial Templars were engaged in manufacturing and education at a time of industrial unrest and social change.
For more information, refer to the Birmingham Preceptory section.

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Innocent II
Pope or Papal Official
  Born Gregorio Papareschi, he succeeded Honorius II and reigned as Pope from 1130 to 1143.
In 1139, he issued his Bull
Omne datum optimum, which brought the Templars under direct papal authority. He stated such privileges and exemptions that it made them an autonomous corporate body.
b. ? (probably) in Rome   d. September 24, 1143.

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Innocent III
Pope or Papal Official
  Born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was Pope from January 8, 1198, until his death.
Innocent III summoned the Fourth Lateran Council (12th Ecumenical Council), which opened on November 11, 1215, where he raised the viability of a Fifth Crusade. However, he wanted it to be under the complete control of the church and they set the date for 1217.
However, he died in July 1216, and the cause transferred to the next Pope, Honorius III.
Innocent III is also remembered for his absolute demand for loyalty to the Church which led to his zealous persecution of anything that he considered heretical. To that end he ordered the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars in the Languedoc region of France. The subsequent torture and total annihilation of them is considered to be one of the darkest episodes in the Church's history.
b. c.1161 in Gavignano   d. June 16, 1216 in Perugia.

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J
Jacob's Ford
Historic Site   Name or site of battle(s)
  Unfinished Templar castle in the Holy Lands, now archaeological ruins. Construction was started in October 1178 by King Baldwin IV at the only crossing point of the river and the main route between Saladin's empire and Jerusalem. In August 1179, Saladin laid siege and quickly overcame the defences, and later dismantled the castle so that it could never be rebuilt.
The site is also known by the Latin name of Vadum Iacob and in modern Hebrew as Ateret.

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Jaffa
Historic Site   Name or site of battle(s)
  Ancient port city located in Tel Aviv, Israel on the Mediterranean Sea.
It was also an important city in the Arab Middle East. During the Crusades, it was the County of Jaffa, a stronghold of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The city surrendered to King Richard I (Lionheart) on September 10, 1191, three days after the decisive Battle of Arsuf. Despite efforts by Saladin to reoccupy the city in July 1192 the city remained in the hands of the Crusaders, and on September 2, 1192 the Treaty of Jaffa was formally sworn, guaranteeing a three year truce between the two armies. In 1268 Jaffa was conquered by Egyptian Mamluks, led by Baibars. In the 14th century they completely destroyed the city for fear of new crusades.
According to the traveller Cotwyk, Jaffa was a heap of ruins at the end of the 16th century

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Jacques de Molay
Knight Templar
  Also recorded as Jaques de Molay, or James of Molay.
Twenty-second and last Grand Master of the medieval order of the Knights Templar, from 1146 until his execution.
Following the fall of the Holy Lands, the Templars returned to Europe and engaged themselves in their business operations which brought them into direct conflict with Philip IV of France who owed the Order a considerable amount of money.
De Molay was burned at the stake in Paris
following years of torture-induced confessions.
His last words are alleged to have been a curse on his persecutors - see
Molay's Curse.

b. 1244?   d. March 18, 1314 (executed).
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John XXII
Pope or Papal Official
  Pope (1316-34) who approved a new Order following the suppression of the Templars.
He also lifted Robert the Bruce's excommunication imposed in 1306 by Clement V.
b. 1249 in Cahors, France   d. December 4, 1334 at Avignon.
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K
Knight
Templar term or phrase
  A male member of the Order raised from Novice to this next rank of Knight.
During the knighting ceremony, a Novice confirms their commitment to the Order and to the Chivalric Code. Their plain white mantle is replaced by one with the red Templar Cross and they are then dubbed (knighted) by the Grand Prior.

See also
Dame, the equivalent rank for female members.

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Knights of Malta
  See Hospitallers.
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Khwarezmid Empire
  A Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled in Central Asia and Iran, first as vassals of the Seljuks and later as independent rulers in the 11th century, lasting until the Mongol invasion in 1220. It was founded by Anūsh Tigin Gharchāī of Turkic origin, a former slave of the Seljuq sultans. His son, Qutb ud-Dīn Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.
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L
La Forbie, Battle of
Site of Battle(s)
  Also known as the Battle of Harbiyah
Fought between a rare Christian-Muslim alliance and the Egyptian army of Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, reinforced with Khwarezmian mercenaries.
Many historians claim the Battle of Hattin to be the turning point in the Crusades, but the loss at La Forbie truly marked the collapse of Christian control in Outremer.
Date: October 17-18, 1244.

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Latin Rule, The
Templar term or phrase   Rule, edict or writings
  The original 76 articles which made up the 'rules' of the Order, constituted at the Council of Troyes in 1128. Originally, the Rule was 72 articles, but this was later expanded into 76 following translation into French in 1136-1137. The French version was never finalised and the final version had 686 articles.
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Louis IX
Monarch or of a royal family   of France
  Also known as Saint Louis.
French king who embarked on the Seventh and Eighth Crusades at a time when most other European countries had tired of the time and expense of the campaigns.
As the son of King Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile, he was a member of the Capetian dynasty and reigned with religious zeal from 1226 until his death.
He was later canonized in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII.
b. April 25, 1215 in Poissy   d. August 25, 1270 at Tunis.

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M
Magister Militae Templi
Templar term or phrase
  Latin term which translates as Master of the Temple. Magister Militum was the title for the commander-in-chief in the Western Roman Empire.
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Maltese Cross
  Different from a Templar Cross, a Maltese cross is eight-pointed and has the shape of four "V" shaped arms joined together at their bases, so that each arm has two points. The eight points are said to symbolise the chivalric virtues: Loyalty, Piety, Frankness, Bravery, Glory and Honour, Contempt of death, Helpfulness towards the poor and the sick, Respect for the church.
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Mamluk
  Also written as Mameluk, or Marmaluk.
A Mamluk was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. Over time they became a powerful military caste, and on more than one occasion they seized power for themselves, for example in Egypt from 1250 to 1517.

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mantle
Templar term or phrase
  White robe worn by Templars.
The mantles of Knights and Dames have a
red cross pattée on the left, whilst the mantles of Novices are plain white.
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Marj Uyun, Battle of
Name or site of battle(s)
  Crusader battle in 1179, in which Baldwin IV was defeated by Saladin, although he managed to escape. The Grand Master of the Templars, Odo de St Amand was captured and never returned. Shortly after, the unfinished Templar castle at Jacob's Ford was captured after a short siege.
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Marshal
Templar term or phrase
  One of the nine senior office holders of the Grand Priory Chapter.
The Marshal is responsible for the habit, insignia, heraldry, ceremonial furnishings and the conduct of ceremonies in the Grand Priory.
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Militi Dei
Papal Bull
  Papal Bull issued by Eugenius III allowing the Templars to have their own churches and clergy, exempt from Episcopal control.
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Milites Templi
Papal Bull
  Papal Bull issued by Celestine II giving the Templars more privileges. They could now collect their own funds.
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Molay's Curse   It is said that Jacques de Molay cursed Philip IV, and his descent, from his execution pyre. Indeed, the rapid succession of the last direct Capetian kings of France between 1314 and 1328, the three sons of Philip, led many to believe that the dynasty had been cursed – thus the name of "Cursed Kings" (Rois Maudits).
Whilst they watched him burn, De Molay apparently called out and challenged both the King and Pope Clement V to meet him before the judgment of God before the year was over. The Pope died a month later and Philip died before the year was out. Interestingly, the 300 year old Capetian dynasty collapsed during the next 14 years.

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N
Napoleon I
Monarch or of a royal family   of France
  Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français) under the name Napoléon I (Napoléon 1er) from May 18, 1804 to April 6, 1814, and was briefly restored as Emperor from March 20 to June 22, 1815.
Napoleon supported the 1804 revival, which is the origin of the modern Order.
b. August 15, 1769   d. May 5, 1821.

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Non nobis, Domine, non nobis sed Nomini Tuo da gloriam
Templar term or phrase
  The Latin translation of Psalm 115:1 in the King James Bible (Psalm 113:9, according to the Vulgate numbering).
In English, it reads:
Not to us, O Lord, not to us,
But to your name give the glory.

Inscribed as the motto of the Order in 1163.

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Novice
Templar term or phrase
  After an application to the Order has been approved, a Postulant attends an Admission Ceremony and is vested as a Novice in a plain white mantle. There then follows a period of time in which the Novice will undertake their dedication to the Order, through a project or other work, before they are proposed to being invested as a Knight (or Dame).
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O
Odo de St Amand
Knight Templar
  Eighth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1171-1179).
Odo came from a family from the Limousin. He was Marshal of Jerusalem and later viscount. In 1157, during the siege of the Christian town of Banias near the source of the Jordan, he was taken prisoner along with then-master Bertrand de Blanchefort, during the disastrous fight that followed. Despite release, his luck did not strike twice, as he taken prisoner at the Battle of Marj Uyun and never returned.
b. ?   d. 1179 (presumed).

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Omne datum optimum
Papal Bull
  Papal Bull issued by Pope Innocent II in 1139 that initially endorsed the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Knights Templar), in which the Templar Rule was officially approved, and papal protection given. Additionally, this Bull promised all spoils from Muslim conquest to the Order, and made the Order exempt from tithes and taxes.
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Order of Christ   The Order of Christ is the senior national Order of Chivalry in Portugal. A similarly named decoration is also occasionally awarded by the Pope.
It owes its origins to the same Order of Christ of the Knights Templar from which came the Order of Christ awarded by the Kings of Portugal. Originally the Portuguese order had both a secular and religious component. However by the 18th century the religious component had died out.

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Order of Lazarus   The Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital run by Hospitaller brothers founded in 1136 in conjunction with the Templars. It was originally set up to treat virulent diseases such as leprosy.
The Order was restored by the French King Henry IV.

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Ordo Supremus
Militaris Templi
Hierosolymitani
- Knights Templar International

Templar term or phrase
  The international umbrella organisation of which the national Grand Priories are members.
OSMTH - KTI is registered in Switerland
as a charitable organisation under Swiss Registry Number CH-660.1972999-4.
It is recognised as a Non Governmental Organisation (NGO) in Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.

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OSMTH
Templar term or phrase
  The acronym of Ordo Supremus Militaris Templi Hierosolymitani; the full Latin name for the Knights Templar Order - usually translated as 'The Sovereign (or Supreme) Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem'.
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P
Papal Bull
Papal Bull
  An official directive issued by the Pope (or Pontiff). In historic times, the Pope held great influence over most European monarchs. Any Bull was, in effect, an order from the Pope who expected them to be upheld without question.
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Pascal II
Pope or Papal Official
  Also recorded as Paschal II.
Pope who officially recognised the Hospitaller Order of St. John in 1113.
Born Ranierius, he was consecrated as Pope on August 19, 1099. A monk of the Cluniac order, he was created Cardinal Priest of the Titulus S. Clementi by Pope Gregory VII in about 1076.
b. ? in Blera, Italy   d. January 21, 1118 in Rome.

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Pastoralis Praeeminentiae
Papal Bull
  Papal Bull issued by Clement V on November 22, 1307 to all Christian monarchs, ordering the arrest of all Templars and to seize their properties. Clement was forced to start the campaign against the Templars by Philip IV of France, who owed them a great deal of money.
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pattée
Templar term or phrase
  see cross pattée
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Pedro de Montaigu
Knight Templar
  Also known as Pierre de Montaigue.
Fifteenth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1219-1230/2?).
Pedro was originally from the Languedoc and was Master of the Templar province of Aragon, before rising to Grand Master.
Took part in the Fifth Crusade.
b. ?   d. 1230.

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Philip IV
Monarch or of a royal family   of France
  French: Phillipe IV (le Bel)
Of the Capetian Dynasty, Philip reigned from October 5, 1285 until his death.
A notorious warmonger who virtually bankrupted France, through his relentless campaign against England. He debased the coinage but was still unable to control the country's finances. Eventually, he resorted to prejudicial and immoral means to raise income.
In 1305, he started an anti-Semitic campaign against the French Jews, arresting them then confiscating their assets when he expelled them all in 1306; these included the Lombard bankers. He then imposed a 50% tax on the clergy, which outraged the Pope, Boniface VIII, who issued a Papal Bull forbidding the tax. In defiance, Philip usurped Boniface and replaced him with his long-time friend Bertrand de Goth, who became Pope Clement V. However, Philip insisted that Clement move the Papal seat (Roman Curia) from the Vatican to Avignon, a fiefdom surrounded by French controlled provinces.

Heavily in debt to the Templars, Philip immediately started a campaign of fabricated evidence of heresy. Clement would not accept any of it, so Philip went it alone at first and ordered the arrest of all Templars in France on Friday 13 October, 1307. The following month, and with a great deal of reluctance, Clement issued his Bull
Pastoralis Praeeminentiae; some say because Philip had threatened to remove him too.
Philip personally oversaw many of the torture sessions of the senior Templars, including that of Jacques de Molay. Originally sentencing De Molay to life imprisonment, Philip changed the sentence, and De Molay, amongst many others, was burned at the stake.
Philip died shortly afterwards, as did Clement V - see
Molay's Curse.
b. 1268 in Fontainebleau   d. November 29, 1314 in Fontainebleau.
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Philippe de Milly
Knight Templar
  Also known as Philip de Nablus.
Seventh Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1169-1171).
Philip was the son of Guy of Milly, a knight from Picardy who participated in the First Crusade.
For unknown reasons he resigned as Grand Master in 1171, and died en route to Constantinople whilst accompanying Amalric on an ambassadorial mission.

b. c.1120   d. April 3(?), 1171.
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Phillipe de Plessis
Knight Templar
  Also written as du Plessiez.
Thirteenth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1201-1209)
Born in the fortress of Plessis-Macé, Anjou, France, Phillipe grew up to join the Third Crusade in 1189 as a simple knight. Here he discovered the Order of the Temple in Palestine.
After the death of Gilbert Horal he became Grand Master in 1201, and used his position to uphold the treaty between Richard I and Saladin. In the renewal of this treaty in 1208, he suggested that the Teutonic Order and Hospitallers should make a new peace treaty offer with Malek-Adel, an accord that was criticised by Pope Innocent III.
Very little military action occurred as the Fourth Crusade never really happened in earnest.
The period of relative peace gave Phillipe considerable time to build up the Templar Order, and increase both the reputation and resources of the Order through the amount of trade that picked up during this relative period of peace. The Templars probably reached their greatest height during Philippe's stewardship.
His name is last documented in 1209 and The Obituary of Reims gives the date of his death as November 12, 1209.

b. 1165   d. November 12, 1209.
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Poor Knights of Christ
Templar term or phrase
  Originally the Templars were known as the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ Jesus and the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), then The Knights of the Temple of Solomon, then The Knights of the Temple and finally the Templars. Upon acceptance as a Knight, all worldly goods were renounced, hence 'The Poor Knights of Christ'.
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Postulant
Templar term or phrase
  First stage of membership after acceptance of application by the Grand Priory Chapter.
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Preceptor
Templar term or phrase
  The leader of a Preceptory, elected by a simple majority of the other Knights, Dames and voting members of the Preceptory and then confirmed by the General Assembly.
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Preceptory
Templar term or phrase
  An area recognised by the Grand Priory and led by a Preceptor.
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Q
Quia maior
Papal Bull
  Papal Bull issued by Innocent III in 1213, calling for the Fifth Crusade.
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R
Raymond du Puy   Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (1261? - 1160).
As the second Grand Master he developed the Knights Hospitaller into strong military power. He accepted the eight- pointed Amalfi cross as an official symbol of the Order, which later became known as the Maltese Cross after the establishment of the Order on Malta.
Raymond divided the Order into clerical, military, and serving brothers. Together with the Templars, he established the first significant Hospitaller infirmary near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Although participants in the Battle of Ascalon in 1153, the Hospitallers did not become a notable military Order until later. This may have been due to their priority of using resources for care purposes.

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Renaud de Vichiers
Knight Templar
  Eighteenth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1250-1256).
b. ?   d. 1256.
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Retrais et establissements de Temple
Templar term or phrase
  A documented amendment to The Latin Rule in 1163, subsequently approved and sanctioned by Pope Alexander III.
These amendments included such changes as how elections would be run, defining the hierarchy, and choice of the Order's Motto
"Non nobis...", amongst others.

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Richard I (Lionheart)
Monarch or of a royal family   of England
  Plantagent king of England who ruled from July 6, 1189 until his death. Later writers referred to him as Richard the Lionheart, or Cœur de Leon.
Richard spent more years of his reign away from England, as most of his domain was in France. He took part in the Third Crusade, with campaigns in Sicily and Cyprus on the way, and afterwards endured a period under arrest by Leopold V of Austria.
Known best for his exploits in the Third Crusade, where he won some very significant victories against Saladin; most notably at Acre and Arsuf. Despite the widely-held belief that they were sworn enemies, both Christian and Muslim chroniclers record that they afforded each other a great deal of respect. They signed many treaties by way of mutual compromise, especially when both armies were in untenable positions. Such mutuality between the two leaders enabled peaceful periods in the Holy Land, albeit for only a few years at a time.
Richard died from gangrene as a result of a arrow wound in the arm, allegedly fired accidentally by a serving boy at his castle at Châlus-Chabrol.
b. September 8, 1157 at Beaumont Palace, Oxford
d. April 6, 1199 at Châlus, in Limousin.

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Richard de Bures
Knight Templar
  Some sources list Richard as the seventeenth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1245-1247). However, most academics accept that Richard simply stood in as caretaker Grand Master following the death of Armand de Périgord. As such, he wasn't formally voted into office as Grand Master, but merely held the post until the election of Guillame de Sonnac in 1248.
b. ?   d. May 5, 1247.
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Robert de Craon (Burgundy)
Knight Templar
  Second Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1136-1146).
Robert was born around the turn of the 12th century, the youngest of the three sons of Renaud de Craon. He settled in Aquitaine and was engaged to the daughter of the lord of Angoumois, but gave up his fiancée and travelled to Palestine after learning of the foundation of the Templar Order by Hughes de Payens.
According to William of Tyre, Robert participated in the Council of Acre during the Second Crusade in 1148, but according to the Obituary of Reims, he died in 1147.

b. c.1100   d. January 13, 1147.
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Robert de Sablé
Knight Templar
  Eleventh Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1191-1192/3?)
He was also Lord of Cyprus (1191-1192) and Lord of La Suze and Briollay in Anjou, France prior to joining the order in 1191
.
b. ?   d. 1193.

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Robert the Bruce
Monarch or of a royal family   of Scotland
  Also known as Robert I.
King of Scotland (1306 – 1329), he claimed the Scottish throne as a great-great-great-great grandson of David I of Scotland.
Although beaten on several occasions by Edward I in the First War of Scottish Independence, Robert went on to crush Edward II at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. It is said that the banished Templars fought alongside Robert, as many Templar banners, including the beaucéant were seen on the battlefield.
Scotland was one of the only European nations to ignore Clement V's Order to suppress the Templars, so many people see their involvement at Bannockburn as a cordial return of favour.

b. July 11, 1274   d. June 7, 1329.

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Rosslyn Chapel
Historic Site
  Rosslyn Chapel, originally named the 'Collegiate Chapel of St. Matthew', is a 15th century church in the village of Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland. The chapel was designed by William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness (also spelled "St. Clair") of the St. Clair family, a Scottish noble family descended from Norman knights.
Construction of the chapel began in 1440, and the chapel was officially founded in 1446, with construction lasting for forty years.

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Rothley Manor
Historic Site
 

The Templars were granted land at Rothley in 1203 by John de Harecourt and the Manor of Rothley by Henry III in 1228.
The Chapel still stands today next to the the former manor house, which was converted into a hotel, Rothley Court Hotel, in 1960. Ownership has passed down to Clive Wormleighton, a member of the Order who became Preceptor of Leicester in 1974.
The Chapel is op
en to the public upon asking at the Hotel.

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S
Saladin
  Also written as Salah al-Din, or Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi.
Saladin was a twelfth century Muslim general and warrior who founded the Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt, Syria, most of Yemen, Iraq, Mecca, Hejaz and Diyar Bakr.
He was renowned in both the Muslim and Christian worlds for leadership and military prowess, tempered by his chivalry and generally merciful nature.
Notwithstanding the differences in beliefs, he was respected by Christian lords, especially by Richard I. Richard once praised Saladin as a great prince, saying that he was "without doubt the greatest and most powerful leader in the Islamic world." Saladin in turn stated that "there was not a more honourable Christian lord than Richard."
They signed the Treaty of Ramla in 1192 allowing Richard to return home, but Saladin died shortly after Richard's departure from the Holy Lands.
Although he is known worldwide as Saladin his real name was Yousuf. 'Salah al-Din' is an honorific title which translates to The Righteousness of the Faith from Arabic.
b. c.1138   d. March 4, 1193.

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Seljuk Dynasty
  Also written as Seljuk, Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq, or sometimes as Seljuq Turks.
A Muslim dynasty of originally Oghuz Turkic descent that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. They set up an empire known as "Great Seljuk Empire" that stretched from Anatolia to Punjab and was the target of the First Crusade. The dynasty marked the beginning of of Turkic power in the Middle East, and they are regarded as the cultural ancestors of the Western Turks, the present-day inhabitants of Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Turkmenistan. They are also remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art, literature, and language.

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Seneschal
Templar term or phrase
  One of the nine senior office holders of the Grand Priory Chapter.
The Seneschal oversees
membership enquiries, register of members, training and the recruitment process.
In the historic Order, the Seneschal was also the second in command to the Grand Master.

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Sub Prior
Templar term or phrase
  One of the nine senior office holders of the Grand Priory Chapter.
The Sub Prior deputises for the Grand Prior during the absence or incapacity of the Grand Prior on any occasion, or during any time that the Office of Grand Prior is vacant.

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T
Templar Cross
Templar term or phrase
  see cross pattée
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Templar Heritage Trust
Templar term or phrase
  Established by the Grand Priory to help conserve buildings and sites connected with the medieval Knights Templar.

The funds of the THT are held by the Charities Aid Foundation.

For more information, see the Our Charities section.

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Templar Pilgrimage Trust
Templar term or phrase
  A registered charity sponsored by the Grand Priory to provide grants to the young and the disabled to travel on pilgrimage or to make religious educational visits at home and abroad.

For more information, see the Our Charities section.

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Temple Bruer
Historic Site
  Former Templar military training ground and preceptory.
Temple Bruer is now a farm-yard in the civil parish of Temple Bruer with Temple High Grange. It is deeply steeped in history and legend, owing to its strong connections with the Knights Templars. Its name comes from its Templar ownership and its position in the middle of the Lincoln Heath, bruyère in the language current at the time. It was founded in the period 1150 to 1160, and is supposed to be associated with local hamlet Byards Leap, where the Templars allegedly held tournaments and jousts.
The remains of the church can still be seen on the site.

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Temple Church,
Bristol
Historic Site
  The original oval Temple Church in Bristol was founded mid 12th Century by Robert of Gloucester and the Knights Templar.
The new building, also known as Holy Cross Church is known as the Temple Church, because it was built on the site of the original Templar church.
It is now maintained by English Heritage.

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Temple Church,
London

Historic Site
  The Temple Church is a late 12th century church in London located between Fleet Street and the River Thames, built for and by the Knights Templar as their English headquarters. In modern times, two Inns of Court (Inner Temple and Middle Temple) both use the church, which is famous for its effigy tombs.
A link to the Temple Church official website is included in the Links section.

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Templecombe
Historic Site
  One of the current Preceptories of the Grand Priory based in this small Somerset village. Templecombe is one of the oldest and well-known Templar sites in the world and the current Preceptory members maintain the traditions of the former knights.
The village is centred around the Templar church of St Marys, the site of which goes back to King Alfred's reign and the building of a daughter church to his huge Shaftesbury Abbey.
The church is famous for its panel painting (from around 1280), reputed to be the image of Christ's head.

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Teutonic Knights
 
  The Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order (Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Ierosolimitanorum, "Order of the Teutonic House of St. Mary in Jerusalem", German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St. Mariens in Jerusalem or - more common - Deutscher Orden) was a German Roman Catholic religious order formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre in Palestine. During the Middle Ages they were a crusading military order and wore white mantles with a black cross.
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Thibaud Gaudini
Knight Templar
  Twenty-first Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1291-1292)
Thibaud assumed the Grand Master title following the death of his predecessor, Guillaume de Beaujeu at the Siege of Acre.
Thibaud arranged the evacuation of Acre, and left by sea for Sidon, taking with him the last of Templar archives and artefacts from the Holy Lands. He tried to reorganise all the Templars after the devastations of the recent battles. Moreover, it was necessary for him to defend of the Kingdom of Armenia from the encircled Turkish Seldjuks and the island of Cyprus, occupied by a multitude of refugees. However, the task must have proved too daunting as he he died of exhaustion in 1292, leaving an enormous rebuilding task for his successor.
b. 1229?   d. April 16, 1292.

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Thomas Bérard
Knight Templar
  Also written as Béraud or Bérault.
Nineteenth Grand Master of the Knights Templar (1256-1273)
b. ?   d. 1273.

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Tomar Castle
Historic Site   of Portugal
  Stunning Templar castle in Tomar, Portugal.
The Convent of the Order of Christ (Portuguese: Convento de Cristo) was originally a Templar stronghold built in the 12th century by Gualdim Pais. After the Order was dissolved, the Portuguese branch of the Order was turned into the Knights of the Order of Christ, which supported Portugal's maritime discoveries of the 15th century.
The Convent of Christ of Tomar is one of Portugal's most important historical and artistic monuments and has been on the World Heritage list of UNESCO since 1983.
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Treasurer
Templar term or phrase
  One of the nine senior office holders of the Grand Priory Chapter.
The Treasurer is responsible for the finances of the Grand Priory including the collection of membership subscriptions and the keeping of proper accounts.
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Treaty of Ramla
Treaty, agreement or pact
  Treaty signed between Richard I and Saladin in 1192, allowing the City of Jerusalem to remain in Muslim hands, whilst being open to Christian pilgrimages.
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U
Urban II
Pope or Papal Official
  He was born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo) into French nobility in 1042.
He became archdeacon of Rheims when, under the influence of St. Bruno his teacher, he resigned and entered the cloister at Cluny where he rose to be prior. In 1078, Pope Gregory VII promoted him to cardinal-bishop of Ostia. Ten years later, he was elected Pope following Victor II's death.
He is best known for calling the First Crusade (1096–99) at the Council of Clermont in 1095. Urban II died 14 days after Jerusalem fell to the Crusaders, although before news had actually reached him of the success of that first campaign.

b. 1042   d. July 29, 1099.

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Urban III
Pope or Papal Official
  Born Uberto Crivelli, he was Pope from 1185 to 1187.
According to legend, he died of grief upon hearing news of the Crusader defeat in July of 1187 at the Battle of Hattin.
His successor, Gregory VIII immediately called for the Third Crusade.

b. ? in Cuggiono, Italy   d. October 19, 1187 in Ferrara, Italy.

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V
Vox in excelso
Papal Bull
  Papal Bull issued by Clement V in 1312, dissolving the Templar Order.
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W
Warmund of Picquigny
Knight Templar
  Also recorded as Garmond, Gormond, Germond, Guarmond, or Waremond
Warmund was a Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1118 to his death.
Together with King Baldwin II, he convened the Council of Nablus in 1120. The canons of the council served as a sort of concordat between the church of Outremer and the Crusader States.

b. ?   d. 1128 in Sidon.

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William of Tyre
Clergy or from a monastic order
  William was archbishop of Tyre and an historian of the Crusades and the Middle Ages.
b. c.1130   d. c.1185.

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X
    There are currently no entries under 'X'.
However, this reference glossary is constantly updated, so new entries may be added in the future.

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Y
    There are currently no entries under 'Y'.
However, this reference glossary is constantly updated, so new entries may be added in the future.

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Z
    There are currently no entries under 'Z'.
However, this reference glossary is constantly updated, so new entries may be added in the future.

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